Transudating

100-1A), perihilar indistinctness and vascular haze (see Fig. At higher left atrial pressures, frank alveolar edema occurs, with spillage of fluid into the air spaces.

In these patients, the chest radiograph will show an air space consolidation pattern (see Fig.

Kerley B lines are horizontal linear opacities, 1 to 2 cm in length, in contact with the pleural surface.Additionally, pulmonary vascular congestion is difficult to determine accurately in nonerect patients because upper lobe vessels frequently normally appear larger than lower lobe vessels for patients imaged in a supine or semierect position.Furthermore, azygos vein dilation, often considered an indicator of elevated right atrial pressure, is a common and potentially normal finding on supine radiographs.Other potential causes include left atrial, mitral valvular, or pulmonary venous obstruction and volume overload in patients with renal failure or iatrogenic hypervolemia.Less commonly, low intravascular oncotic pressure resulting from hypoalbuminemia, typically in patients with liver failure or nephrotic syndrome, may produce interstitial fluid accumulation.

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